PGSQL_TABLE(5)                                                  PGSQL_TABLE(5)

       pgsql_table - Postfix PostgreSQL client configuration

       postmap -q "string" pgsql:/etc/postfix/filename

       postmap -q - pgsql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile

       The  Postfix  mail system uses optional tables for address rewriting or
       mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm or db format.

       Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as PostgreSQL  databases.
       In  order  to  use  PostgreSQL lookups, define a PostgreSQL source as a
       lookup table in, for example:
           alias_maps = pgsql:/etc/postfix/

       The file /etc/postfix/ has the same format as the Post-
       fix file, and can specify the parameters described below.

       When  using  SQL  to  store  lists such as $mynetworks, $mydestination,
       $relay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it is important to  under-
       stand that the table must store each list member as a separate key. The
       table lookup verifies the *existence* of the key.  See  "Postfix  lists
       versus tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.

       Do  NOT create tables that return the full list of domains in $mydesti-
       nation or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses in $mynetworks.

       DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with an arbitrary
       value.  With  SQL databases it is not uncommon to return the key itself
       or a constant value.

       hosts  The hosts that Postfix will try to connect to  and  query  from.
              Besides  a  postgresql://  connection URI, this setting supports
              the historical forms unix:/pathname for UNIX-domain sockets  and
              inet:host:port  for  TCP  connections, where the unix: and inet:
              prefixes are accepted and ignored for  backwards  compatibility.
                  hosts = postgresql://
                  hosts = inet:host1.some.domain inet:host2.some.domain:port
                  hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain:port
                  hosts = unix:/file/name

              The  hosts  are tried in random order. The connections are auto-
              matically closed after being idle for about 1  minute,  and  are
              re-opened as necessary.

              NOTE:  if "hosts" specifies one load balancer and no alternative
              servers, specify the load balancer multiple times in the "hosts"
              line.  Without the duplicate info, the Postfix PostgreSQL client
              would not reconnect immediately to the same load balancer  after
              a PostgreSQL server failure.


              The  user name and password to log into the pgsql server.  Exam-
                  user = someone
                  password = some_password

       dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
                  dbname = customer_database

              The encoding used by the database client.  The  default  setting
                  encoding = UTF8

              Historically,  the  database client was hard coded to use LATIN1
              in an attempt to disable multibyte character support.

              This feature is available in Postfix 3.8 and later.

       idle_interval (default: 60)
              The number of seconds after which an  idle  database  connection
              will be closed.

              This feature is available in Postfix 3.9 and later.

       retry_interval (default: 60)
              The number of seconds that a database connection will be skipped
              after an error.

              This feature is available in Postfix 3.9 and later.

       query  The SQL query template used to search the database, where %s  is
              a  substitute for the address Postfix is trying to resolve, e.g.
                  query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE mailbox = '%s'

              This parameter supports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character. (Postfix 2.2
                     and later)

              %s     This  is  replaced by the input key.  SQL quoting is used
                     to make sure that the input key does not  add  unexpected

              %u     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %u is replaced by  the  SQL  quoted  local  part  of  the
                     address.   Otherwise, %u is replaced by the entire search
                     string.  If the localpart is empty,  the  query  is  sup-
                     pressed and returns no results.

              %d     When the input key is an address of the form user@domain,
                     %d is replaced by the  SQL  quoted  domain  part  of  the
                     address.   Otherwise, the query is suppressed and returns
                     no results.

              %[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above expansions behave
                     in  the  query  parameter identically to their lower-case
                     counter-parts.  With  the  result_format  parameter  (see
                     below),  they expand the input key rather than the result

                     The above %S, %U and %D  expansions  are  available  with
                     Postfix 2.2 and later

              %[1-9] The  patterns  %1,  %2, ... %9 are replaced by the corre-
                     sponding most significant component of  the  input  key's
                     domain.  If  the input key is, then
                     %1 is com, %2 is example and %3 is mail. If the input key
                     is  unqualified or does not have enough domain components
                     to satisfy all the specified patterns, the query is  sup-
                     pressed and returns no results.

                     The  above %1, ... %9 expansions are available with Post-
                     fix 2.2 and later

              The domain parameter described below limits the  input  keys  to
              addresses  in  matching  domains.  When  the domain parameter is
              non-empty, SQL queries for unqualified addresses or addresses in
              non-matching domains are suppressed and return no results.

              The  precedence  of this parameter has changed with Postfix 2.2,
              in prior releases the precedence was, from  highest  to  lowest,
              select_function, query, select_field, ...

              With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest precedence, see
              OBSOLETE QUERY INTERFACES below.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.

       result_format (default: %s)
              Format template applied to result attributes. Most commonly used
              to  append  (or prepend) text to the result. This parameter sup-
              ports the following '%' expansions:

              %%     This is replaced by a literal '%' character.

              %s     This is replaced by the value of  the  result  attribute.
                     When result is empty it is skipped.

              %u     When the result attribute value is an address of the form
                     user@domain, %u is replaced by  the  local  part  of  the
                     address.  When  the  result  has an empty localpart it is

              %d     When a result attribute value is an address of  the  form
                     user@domain,  %d  is  replaced  by the domain part of the
                     attribute value. When the result  is  unqualified  it  is

                     The  upper-case  and decimal digit expansions interpolate
                     the parts of the input key rather than the result.  Their
                     behavior  is  identical to that described with query, and
                     in fact because  the  input  key  is  known  in  advance,
                     queries  whose  key  does not contain all the information
                     specified in  the  result  template  are  suppressed  and
                     return no results.

              For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]" allows one to use
              a mailHost attribute as the basis of a transport(5) table. After
              applying  the result format, multiple values are concatenated as
              comma  separated  strings.  The  expansion_limit  and  parameter
              explained  below  allows one to restrict the number of values in
              the result, which is especially useful for maps that must return
              at most one value.

              The  default value %s specifies that each result value should be
              used as is.

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!

       domain (default: no domain list)
              This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or  "type:table"
              databases. When specified, only fully qualified search keys with
              a *non-empty* localpart and a matching domain are  eligible  for
              lookup:  'user'  lookups,  bare  domain  lookups  and  "@domain"
              lookups are not performed. This  can  significantly  reduce  the
              query load on the PostgreSQL server.
                  domain =, hash:/etc/postfix/searchdomains

              It  is best not to use SQL to store the domains eligible for SQL

              This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and later.

              NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8) aliases, because
              the input keys are always unqualified.

       expansion_limit (default: 0)
              A  limit  on  the total number of result elements returned (as a
              comma separated list) by a lookup against the map.  A setting of
              zero  disables the limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error if
              the limit is exceeded.  Setting the  limit  to  1  ensures  that
              lookups do not return multiple values.

       For  compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables, PostgreSQL parame-
       ters can also be defined in  In order to do that,  specify  as
       PostgreSQL source a name that doesn't begin with a slash or a dot.  The
       PostgreSQL parameters will then be accessible as the name you've  given
       the source in its definition, an underscore, and the name of the param-
       eter.  For example, if the map is specified as  "pgsql:pgsqlname",  the
       parameter "hosts" would be defined in as "pgsqlname_hosts".

       Note:  with  this  form,  the  passwords for the PostgreSQL sources are
       written in, which is normally world-readable.  Support for this
       form will be removed in a future Postfix version.

       This section describes query interfaces that are deprecated as of Post-
       fix 2.2.  Please migrate to the new query interface as the  old  inter-
       faces are slated to be phased out.

              This parameter specifies a database function name. Example:
                  select_function = my_lookup_user_alias

              This is equivalent to:
                  query = SELECT my_lookup_user_alias('%s')

              This   parameter   overrides  the  legacy  table-related  fields
              (described below). With Postfix versions prior to 2.2,  it  also
              overrides  the  query  parameter. Starting with Postfix 2.2, the
              query parameter has highest precedence, and the  select_function
              parameter is deprecated.

       The  following  parameters (with lower precedence than the select_func-
       tion interface described above) can be used to  build  the  SQL  select
       statement as follows:

           SELECT [select_field]
           FROM [table]
           WHERE [where_field] = '%s'

       The  specifier %s is replaced with each lookup by the lookup key and is
       escaped so if it contains single quotes or  other  odd  characters,  it
       will not cause a parse error, or worse, a security problem.

       Starting with Postfix 2.2, this interface is obsoleted by the more gen-
       eral query interface described above. If higher precedence the query or
       select_function  parameters described above are defined, the parameters
       described here are ignored.

              The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
                  select_field = forw_addr

       table  The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
                  table = mxaliases

              The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
                  where_field = alias

              Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
                  additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'

       postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager
       postconf(5), configuration parameters
       ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
       mysql_table(5), MySQL lookup tables
       sqlite_table(5), SQLite lookup tables

       DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
       PGSQL_README, Postfix PostgreSQL client guide

       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

       PgSQL support was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.

       Based on the MySQL client by:
       Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
       IC Group, Inc.

       Ported to PostgreSQL by:
       Aaron Sethman

       Further enhanced by:
       Liviu Daia
       Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
       P.O. BOX 1-764
       RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA